“Pure logical thinking by itself can not give any knowledge about the world of facts; all the knowledge of the real world comes from experience and ends with them. “
The advantages of generative method of vegetative propagation of plants are indisputable. This and opportunities to create new varieties, and “rejuvenation” of old. Compete with seed reproduction under force unless micropropagation method. However, the latter method requires special equipment, it is difficult to perform in the home, and therefore virtually inaccessible to fans. In nature, seed propagation is commonplace. Otherwise, most of the currently existing species would be doomed to extinction from various diseases. A similar situation exists today among aquatic plants, many of which were in the collection of fans even 30-40 years ago. Perennial vegetative propagation of green pets has led to the appearance in their midst various fungal and viral infections. The extent of disease are sometimes disastrous and lead to a complete loss of this or that kind of collections. Not spared this sad fate and Anubias.
On selection anubias in the literature is given much attention. In particular, it describes examples of the preparation of interspecific hybrids (see. “Aquarium” 1998 / №4 and 2002 / №1). Similar publications are found in foreign literature (see. Das Aquarium 1997 / №340). In all these works are described in detail the advantages of generative reproduction anubias, decorative and other qualities of the resulting offspring. While the very process of pollination, fruit ripening and seed germination allocated only secondary importance. In this paper, we tried to sanctify all the subtleties and mysteries of seed reproduction anubias. We hope the following information will set out a guide to action, even for novice aquarists.
Part One: pollination
Pollination – one of the most interesting phases of reproduction, as directly related to the phase of flowering plants. In greenhouse conditions Anubias bloom throughout the year, especially for medium-sized species. Many aquarists can achieve flowering and under the water, but these buds are of no value for our purpose. For anubias only possible cross-pollination, and it is feasible only in the air. Nevertheless, the absence of a greenhouse – that’s no reason to deny yourself the pleasure to pollinate Anubias. Noticing the growing bud on aquatic plants, you can either lower the water level or raise himself bush closer to the surface, as between it and the cover of the aquarium there is always at least a small piece of airspace.
As we have already mentioned, the term “cross-pollination”, then move on to the next necessary condition – the presence of at least two inflorescences.Inflorescence in anubias consist of blankets and ear on which there are monoecious unisexual flowers.
At the bottom of the cob are female flowers, and at the top – for men (see. Relevant photos). As with most plants in the family Araceae, Anubias inherent phenomenon proteroginii, which is an earlier maturation of the female inflorescence. The main objective of this achievement of the evolutionary process is to prevent self-pollination.
To put it more simply, in practice we have that at the time of formation of pollen in the male inflorescence, the stigma of female flowers are not able to perceive it. Here it is worth paying attention to one caveat – the maturation of one or another part of the inflorescence does not occur abruptly as a team – it’s not a light bulb that turns on or off switch. Flower maturation proceeds gradually upward along the cob, and therefore a part of the contact zones may exist physiologically active male and female flowers are ready to form the ovaries.
To prevent self-pollination nature and then tried their best. Firstly, the majority of anubias a transition zone of sterile male flowers are not able to form pollen, and secondly, by the time the final maturation, inflorescence covered seeks to cover the stigmas of female flowers. But, despite all these tricks, there are cases of self-pollination. Nevertheless, the number of seeds produced with very little. Therefore, if you do decide to engage seriously breeding anubias seeds and are not going to rely on “maybe”, you must have two inflorescences.
The whole cycle of flowering in anubias takes 4-6 days in duration. Female flowers are ready for pollination within the first 1-2 days. Thus, for successful pollination is necessary to have an inflorescence in the final stages of flowering (with ripe pollen) and inflorescence just dissolved. If your anubiasnoe economy is not very large, the window of opportunity can wait very long. In addition, because of the high humidity in small domestic containers and pollen can not be formed. So if your Anubias “dust”, do not miss the moment. To collect pollen, you need to shake inflorescence on a sheet of paper. For this purpose, the inflorescence can even cut, since no pollination of the female part of it is of no further value. Further, it can be stored in the refrigerator at a temperature of 2-10 ° C, pre-wrapped in a piece of paper the same storage. However, in such circumstances, the pollen long will maintain their properties (usually no more than a month). To increase the shelf life can be put in the freezer at lower temperatures, adding pre-tank with a certain amount of pollen calcined silica – to remove excess moisture.
After the pollen is collected, it is necessary to be patient and wait for the next bloom inflorescence. Pollinated plants can belong both to different and to one and the same species.
In nature pollen transfer function lies on insects. In the literature there are anecdotal evidence of ownership of the process Coleoptera familiesNitidulidae and Scarabaeidae (see. M. Knecht “Aracées de Côte d’Ivoire – Contribution à l’étude biosystématique des représentants d’Aracées de la Côte d’Ivoire.” 1983 ). In addition, O. Gartner, in his book “Anubias” (2010) writes that in his home aquariums and palyudariumov pollination is usually carried out in Drosophila. We Anubias pollinate their artistic dry brush watercolor squirrel. First “get dirty” in its pollen, and then evenly applied to the ready to pollinate the female flowers. Stigmas of these flowers emit a special liquid adhesive that facilitates this process. A few days after pollination, remove the soft tissue from the male part of the ear to secure the future of the fruit of the extra pockets of decay.
Part Two: maturation
After pollination comes the next stage – the ripening of the fruit. It usually lasts 2-4 months. At this stage, the role of human minimum, to be exact – absent. Therefore, we simply look at what are the fruits of anubias. As ripening on the location of each pollinated pistil formed seeded berry. In most species, the fruit is closed veil. In this varies depending on its color. Berries beneath the veil, have a pale green color, while the fabric “open” the fruit of more chlorophyll and saturated with veil inflorescences are actively involved in photosynthesis. Unpollinated inflorescences are usually quickly otgnivayut after flowering, although there are exceptions.
The number of seeds in each berry is dependent on the species and quality of Anubias pollination and may be from 10 to 50 pieces. Total same full fruit contains from 200 to 3000 seeds. The size of the seeds of various species is also different. The length of the seed from 0.8 to 3 mm.
Sometimes it happens that the fetus begins to burst, and the seeds go outside on their own. For further successful germination is not necessary to wait for the decay of the soft tissues of the fetus, this will avoid unwanted infections. In addition, if you fall through the fruit for 2-3 weeks before its full maturity, it does not affect the germination of seeds. On the fruits, which are covered by a veil berries, fruit maturity is determined by its hardness (ripe fruit – soft).
Part Three: germination
Seed germination and seedling bring to adulthood – is the longest stage, which will require a certain exposure aquarist. To extract the seeds ripe fruit is cut, rubbed with alcohol, cut off the tip (there is a lot of dirt from the male flowers), remove the cover. Berries (or what’s left of them) is scraped with a knife into a sterile cup of boiled water. If you caught the whole solid berries, they should break up. Once settled pulp, seeds are washed in water and change cup. To calculate the seed is best to use the method of successive visual division handful half. By counting the number of seeds in a minimal number of parts and knowing fission is not difficult to determine the total number.
Svezheizvlechennye from the fruit seeds are white in color and then in the air fairly quickly darken, getting brown. They can not be dry, otherwise they completely lose their germination. It is likely that in contrast to the temperate climate plant seeds anubias not “equipped” shell that prevents them dry completely. Therefore, the process of germination is better to start immediately after the opening of the fetus.
At the stages of extraction and seed sowing important to maintain the sterility of the limit. Should be disinfected with alcohol dishes, and use only boiled water. At the very beginning of its development, young seedlings anubias bad compete with algae and mold, so the appearance of the latter in containers with seeds is highly undesirable. For the same reason we do not recommend planting them in a common greenhouse. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that in these conditions the seeds germinate and bring seedlings to adulthood can, but why take the risk?
First refuge seed can become even an ordinary plastic cup disposable dishes filled with water. On top of it should be covered with a cover glass, to not fall into the dust. Artificial lighting is not needed until sufficient natural light from the windows. The seeds are buoyant and float on the water surface.
About a week later from a seed appears first root. After that, they should be transferred to the substrate on which they will spend the next year of my life. The choice of substrates is large enough: it can be expanded clay, pebbles and even mineral wool (pre-heat treated). The main requirement – it’s purity, for this reason, it is not necessary to use the land or a mixture based on it. In a cell with a substrate solution is poured fertilizer “Kemira” 0.5 g per 1 liter of water. After reaching a certain experience you can try to cook their own fertilizer. The solution level should be slightly below the level of the substrate.
Carry the seeds of the substrate better individually, using the template. This method allows to achieve their uniform distribution. It is important to note that you should not delay the selection of seeds germinated, as their roots are firmly attached to the other seeds. To avoid damage to sprouted seeds, transferring perform better with a wet brush. For convenience, it must be specially trimmed (see. The related photo).
Sowing seeds can be carried out and “randomly” scattered uniformly over the surface of the substrate. In this method, the seeds must be sown before they began to germinate, i.e. almost immediately after removal from the fruit. For convenience, seed (seeds to stick to each other) and a more uniform distribution of their need to dry a wet-particulate state. Unfortunately, at seeding “randomly” fail to achieve normal condensed with seedlings and uniform distribution. With the growth of the seedlings will oppress each other, as well as any difficulties in their seating. Therefore, the method “template” is more preferable. In addition, when sowing germinated seeds are selected more full of them, with the greatest vigor (those that have sprouted faster).
After seeding the cell with the substrate covered with glass. With further cultivation need additional lighting. Fluorescent lamp must be placed at a height of about 30 cm above the surface of the cell. First 2-3 leaf appear fast enough (in the first month of life), their development is supplied with power, which has been incorporated in the seed.
In the next 6-9 months caring for seedlings reduces to checking the level of the nutrient solution, which if necessary, top up.
Six months after sowing need to change the nutrient solution. Concentration “Kemira” increased to 1 gram per liter. When the leaves begin to rest on the cover glass of the cuvette do superstructure height of 5-6 cm. After 1-1.5 years seedlings are seated in individual pots and transferred to the greenhouse. When swordplay selected the strongest and most resilient instances. Weaker seedlings advisable to destroy. This is very important during the breeding work. Planting in pots should be deep (rhizome is dug into the ground). With further growth of the rhizome itself comes to the surface.
Summarizing it should be noted that from the moment of pollination to produce a medium-sized shrub (15-20 cm in height), it takes about two to three years. Aquarists may also be used seedlings at almost every stage of their development, depending on the tasks and artistic design. Mats of six-month seedlings suitable for the foreground even nano-aquariums (20 L), and three year olds can be used for decoration of large bodies of water with a volume of more than 300 liters.
In conclusion, we would like to thank all the participants in the discussion forum anubiasnom subsection www.tropica.ru , and especially S. Gerasimov and V. Surkov. Their experience anubias seed breeding has also been used in writing this article.
Bodyagin S., D. Loginov , Journal “My Tropical Fish“22 (2011) .
PS For a better understanding of the article to all the illustrations, there are comments that become available when you hover the mouse cursor on the photo.