[From AquaFlore.RU] Anubias from seed: to and from the …

“Pure logical thinking by itself can not give any knowledge about the world of facts; all the knowledge of the real world comes from experience and ends with them. “

A. Einstein

The advantages of generative method of vegetative propagation of plants are indisputable. This and opportunities to create new varieties, and “rejuvenation” of old. Compete with seed reproduction under force unless micropropagation method. However, the latter method requires special equipment, it is difficult to perform in the home, and therefore virtually inaccessible to fans. In nature, seed propagation is commonplace. Otherwise, most of the currently existing species would be doomed to extinction from various diseases. A similar situation exists today among aquatic plants, many of which were in the collection of fans even 30-40 years ago. Perennial vegetative propagation of green pets has led to the appearance in their midst various fungal and viral infections. The extent of disease are sometimes disastrous and lead to a complete loss of this or that kind of collections. Not spared this sad fate and Anubias.

Inflorescence Anubias 'minima' (One form of Anubias barteri var. Glabra)

On selection anubias in the literature is given much attention. In particular, it describes examples of the preparation of interspecific hybrids (see. “Aquarium” 1998 / №4 and 2002 / №1). Similar publications are found in foreign literature (see. Das Aquarium 1997 / №340). In all these works are described in detail the advantages of generative reproduction anubias, decorative and other qualities of the resulting offspring. While the very process of pollination, fruit ripening and seed germination allocated only secondary importance. In this paper, we tried to sanctify all the subtleties and mysteries of seed reproduction anubias. We hope the following information will set out a guide to action, even for novice aquarists.

Part One: pollination

Pollination – one of the most interesting phases of reproduction, as directly related to the phase of flowering plants. In greenhouse conditions Anubias bloom throughout the year, especially for medium-sized species. Many aquarists can achieve flowering and under the water, but these buds are of no value for our purpose. For anubias only possible cross-pollination, and it is feasible only in the air. Nevertheless, the absence of a greenhouse – that’s no reason to deny yourself the pleasure to pollinate Anubias. Noticing the growing bud on aquatic plants, you can either lower the water level or raise himself bush closer to the surface, as between it and the cover of the aquarium there is always at least a small piece of airspace.

Flowering Anubias barteri var.  caladiifolia

As we have already mentioned, the term “cross-pollination”, then move on to the next necessary condition – the presence of at least two inflorescences.Inflorescence in anubias consist of blankets and ear on which there are monoecious unisexual flowers.

Inflorescence A. sp.  Gabon (synonym A. barteri): (a) the first day of flowering, (b) the third day (do not cover completely covers the female part of the ear)

At the bottom of the cob are female flowers, and at the top – for men (see. Relevant photos). As with most plants in the family Araceae, Anubias inherent phenomenon proteroginii, which is an earlier maturation of the female inflorescence. The main objective of this achievement of the evolutionary process is to prevent self-pollination.

Inflorescence Anubias afzelii: (a) phase flowering of female flowers, (b) male flowering zone in the final stage (female flowers are tightly closed veil)

To put it more simply, in practice we have that at the time of formation of pollen in the male inflorescence, the stigma of female flowers are not able to perceive it. Here it is worth paying attention to one caveat – the maturation of one or another part of the inflorescence does not occur abruptly as a team – it’s not a light bulb that turns on or off switch. Flower maturation proceeds gradually upward along the cob, and therefore a part of the contact zones may exist physiologically active male and female flowers are ready to form the ovaries.

To prevent self-pollination nature and then tried their best. Firstly, the majority of anubias a transition zone of sterile male flowers are not able to form pollen, and secondly, by the time the final maturation, inflorescence covered seeks to cover the stigmas of female flowers. But, despite all these tricks, there are cases of self-pollination. Nevertheless, the number of seeds produced with very little. Therefore, if you do decide to engage seriously breeding anubias seeds and are not going to rely on “maybe”, you must have two inflorescences.

The whole cycle of flowering in anubias takes 4-6 days in duration. Female flowers are ready for pollination within the first 1-2 days. Thus, for successful pollination is necessary to have an inflorescence in the final stages of flowering (with ripe pollen) and inflorescence just dissolved. If your anubiasnoe economy is not very large, the window of opportunity can wait very long. In addition, because of the high humidity in small domestic containers and pollen can not be formed. So if your Anubias “dust”, do not miss the moment. To collect pollen, you need to shake inflorescence on a sheet of paper. For this purpose, the inflorescence can even cut, since no pollination of the female part of it is of no further value. Further, it can be stored in the refrigerator at a temperature of 2-10 ° C, pre-wrapped in a piece of paper the same storage. However, in such circumstances, the pollen long will maintain their properties (usually no more than a month). To increase the shelf life can be put in the freezer at lower temperatures, adding pre-tank with a certain amount of pollen calcined silica – to remove excess moisture.

After the pollen is collected, it is necessary to be patient and wait for the next bloom inflorescence. Pollinated plants can belong both to different and to one and the same species.

In nature pollen transfer function lies on insects. In the literature there are anecdotal evidence of ownership of the process Coleoptera familiesNitidulidae and Scarabaeidae (see. M. Knecht “Aracées de Côte d’Ivoire – Contribution à l’étude biosystématique des représentants d’Aracées de la Côte d’Ivoire.” 1983 ). In addition, O. Gartner, in his book “Anubias” (2010) writes that in his home aquariums and palyudariumov pollination is usually carried out in Drosophila. We Anubias pollinate their artistic dry brush watercolor squirrel. First “get dirty” in its pollen, and then evenly applied to the ready to pollinate the female flowers. Stigmas of these flowers emit a special liquid adhesive that facilitates this process. A few days after pollination, remove the soft tissue from the male part of the ear to secure the future of the fruit of the extra pockets of decay.

Part Two: maturation

After pollination comes the next stage – the ripening of the fruit. It usually lasts 2-4 months. At this stage, the role of human minimum, to be exact – absent. Therefore, we simply look at what are the fruits of anubias. As ripening on the location of each pollinated pistil formed seeded berry. In most species, the fruit is closed veil. In this varies depending on its color. Berries beneath the veil, have a pale green color, while the fabric “open” the fruit of more chlorophyll and saturated with veil inflorescences are actively involved in photosynthesis. Unpollinated inflorescences are usually quickly otgnivayut after flowering, although there are exceptions.

Growth, development and maturation of the fetus as an example Anubias gracilis

The number of seeds in each berry is dependent on the species and quality of Anubias pollination and may be from 10 to 50 pieces. Total same full fruit contains from 200 to 3000 seeds. The size of the seeds of various species is also different. The length of the seed from 0.8 to 3 mm.

Sometimes it happens that the fetus begins to burst, and the seeds go outside on their own. For further successful germination is not necessary to wait for the decay of the soft tissues of the fetus, this will avoid unwanted infections. In addition, if you fall through the fruit for 2-3 weeks before its full maturity, it does not affect the germination of seeds. On the fruits, which are covered by a veil berries, fruit maturity is determined by its hardness (ripe fruit – soft).

Part Three: germination

Seed germination and seedling bring to adulthood – is the longest stage, which will require a certain exposure aquarist. To extract the seeds ripe fruit is cut, rubbed with alcohol, cut off the tip (there is a lot of dirt from the male flowers), remove the cover. Berries (or what’s left of them) is scraped with a knife into a sterile cup of boiled water. If you caught the whole solid berries, they should break up. Once settled pulp, seeds are washed in water and change cup. To calculate the seed is best to use the method of successive visual division handful half. By counting the number of seeds in a minimal number of parts and knowing fission is not difficult to determine the total number.

Procedure for counting seed

Svezheizvlechennye from the fruit seeds are white in color and then in the air fairly quickly darken, getting brown. They can not be dry, otherwise they completely lose their germination. It is likely that in contrast to the temperate climate plant seeds anubias not “equipped” shell that prevents them dry completely. Therefore, the process of germination is better to start immediately after the opening of the fetus.

At the stages of extraction and seed sowing important to maintain the sterility of the limit. Should be disinfected with alcohol dishes, and use only boiled water. At the very beginning of its development, young seedlings anubias bad compete with algae and mold, so the appearance of the latter in containers with seeds is highly undesirable. For the same reason we do not recommend planting them in a common greenhouse. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that in these conditions the seeds germinate and bring seedlings to adulthood can, but why take the risk?

First refuge seed can become even an ordinary plastic cup disposable dishes filled with water. On top of it should be covered with a cover glass, to not fall into the dust. Artificial lighting is not needed until sufficient natural light from the windows. The seeds are buoyant and float on the water surface.

Sprouting seeds in the cup with water

About a week later from a seed appears first root. After that, they should be transferred to the substrate on which they will spend the next year of my life. The choice of substrates is large enough: it can be expanded clay, pebbles and even mineral wool (pre-heat treated). The main requirement – it’s purity, for this reason, it is not necessary to use the land or a mixture based on it. In a cell with a substrate solution is poured fertilizer “Kemira” 0.5 g per 1 liter of water. After reaching a certain experience you can try to cook their own fertilizer. The solution level should be slightly below the level of the substrate.

Carry the seeds of the substrate better individually, using the template. This method allows to achieve their uniform distribution. It is important to note that you should not delay the selection of seeds germinated, as their roots are firmly attached to the other seeds. To avoid damage to sprouted seeds, transferring perform better with a wet brush. For convenience, it must be specially trimmed (see. The related photo).

Seeding "template" with a brush

Sowing seeds can be carried out and “randomly” scattered uniformly over the surface of the substrate. In this method, the seeds must be sown before they began to germinate, i.e. almost immediately after removal from the fruit. For convenience, seed (seeds to stick to each other) and a more uniform distribution of their need to dry a wet-particulate state. Unfortunately, at seeding “randomly” fail to achieve normal condensed with seedlings and uniform distribution. With the growth of the seedlings will oppress each other, as well as any difficulties in their seating. Therefore, the method “template” is more preferable. In addition, when sowing germinated seeds are selected more full of them, with the greatest vigor (those that have sprouted faster).

After seeding the cell with the substrate covered with glass. With further cultivation need additional lighting. Fluorescent lamp must be placed at a height of about 30 cm above the surface of the cell. First 2-3 leaf appear fast enough (in the first month of life), their development is supplied with power, which has been incorporated in the seed.

Young shoots in the "template"

razbros

In the next 6-9 months caring for seedlings reduces to checking the level of the nutrient solution, which if necessary, top up.

Six months after sowing need to change the nutrient solution. Concentration “Kemira” increased to 1 gram per liter. When the leaves begin to rest on the cover glass of the cuvette do superstructure height of 5-6 cm. After 1-1.5 years seedlings are seated in individual pots and transferred to the greenhouse. When swordplay selected the strongest and most resilient instances. Weaker seedlings advisable to destroy. This is very important during the breeding work. Planting in pots should be deep (rhizome is dug into the ground). With further growth of the rhizome itself comes to the surface.

Seedlings and a half years

Sort anubias size

Seated in a pot for seedlings Anubias

Six months after the seating of

With the growth of the rhizome Anubias itself comes from the ground

Summarizing it should be noted that from the moment of pollination to produce a medium-sized shrub (15-20 cm in height), it takes about two to three years. Aquarists may also be used seedlings at almost every stage of their development, depending on the tasks and artistic design. Mats of six-month seedlings suitable for the foreground even nano-aquariums (20 L), and three year olds can be used for decoration of large bodies of water with a volume of more than 300 liters.

In conclusion, we would like to thank all the participants in the discussion forum anubiasnom subsection www.tropica.ru , and especially S. Gerasimov and V. Surkov. Their experience anubias seed breeding has also been used in writing this article.

Bodyagin S., D. LoginovJournal “My Tropical Fish“22 (2011) .

PS For a better understanding of the article to all the illustrations, there are comments that become available when you hover the mouse cursor on the photo.

Source: http://www.aquaflore.ru/aroidnye/46-anubiasy-iz-semyan-ot-i-do.html

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[From Samara Aquaplant] How to plant Anubias in the hothouse culture? On the substrate and method of planting in the greenhouse Anubias

There is no secret, it’s pretty simple and relatively low-cost. First we need to buy in any garden store package LECA the smallest fraction. As you know keramzit pretty easy stuff, and into the water, floating on the surface, because of its internal pore structure. Therefore, our task is to drown him, or in other words to remove from its innards all air.

To do this, take any appropriate container, which you do not mind, pour into her clay, fill it with water, and simmer over low heat it for 4 – 5 hours, regularly pouring boiled water. Next, turn off the fire, and all alone (expanded clay with water), in the same capacity are leaving for a day. A day later, as a rule, all concrete block with a few exceptions is at the bottom of the tank, under water, that is, as we wanted – drowned.

Next, choose what we put in what we anubias. Very well suited for this purpose various food containers, which can be bought in stores disposable tableware. The width and length of the container depends on the type and size of the plant that you are going to put into it, and in depth, to plant Anubias any size, enough 6 – 8 cm

We have chosen such containers:

Red-hot in the fire a nail, make a few holes in the bottom and side walls.

Now it is time to land. Set the plant in a container in the required position and the required depth, and begin to fill the roots of expanded clay.

Burying the roots to mid-depth expanded clay container, we put in the roots of fertilizer tablet Tetra Plant-Crypto, in our view, quite a decent fertilizer for initial feeding anubias and other aquatic plants.

Next, go to sleep to the top of the container. Pay special attention to, then, to Anubias rhizome remained above the ground. Absorb it should not be only for the simple reason that the rhizome is just a modified stem of a plant and the benefits of penetration will be. Harm, as is commonly believed, apparently there will not be, because no one really did not test this claim that it (recessed into the ground rhizome) rots. Not long ago, the Muscovite Dmitry Loginov told online tropica.ru as Anubias planted in the Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences, what actually surprised. The fact that sazhavaya Anubias in GBS, one much pays attention to the fact, buried in the peat rhizome or not, and very often it is buried. And despite this, Anubias GBS in these Spartan survive and thrive for more than a decade.

We do not have the volume for transplantation in GBS, so we plant carefully, leaving rizomu above the ground.

That’s the whole process simple. The plant can be put in teplichku. When you fill teplichku water, the water level do so that concrete block was filled completely, and Anubias rhizome left in the air. In other words, the level should be flush with the top edge of the container in which the plant is planted. Consider this when choosing containers for planting other plants in the same teplichku height them within one teplichke be the same.

Do not claim that this method is the most ideal, and even believe that other breeders, cultivating Anubias in teplichke, are totally different substrates and methods of planting, which give equally good results growing Anubias. We just talked about how we do.

In the near future will try to continue the theme of growing Anubias in greenhouse culture, describing how and what fertilizers we use for growing anubias and other aquatic plants.

Good luck, Samara Aquaplant.

***

Source: http://aquaplant.fsay.net/otvjety/planting-anubias.html

 

Practical Tips on How to grow Anubias at home

I noticed that some people might have difficulties in understanding the article from the Bulletin of Russian Anubias Forum posted below. Thereby, I’m doing a free translation for them.

Facts
• Anubias are riverside plants. Only some species like A. afzelii, A. barteri and some specimen of A. heterophylla can be grown in aquarium. Even these species grow better in an emergent condition.

Cultivation Methods
• In the botanic garden’s greenhouses Anubias are grown without water, damp peat or soil is used as ground. But this method is not suitable for small home greenhouses, because it’s difficult to fit out good ventilation in such a small volume and as the result the substratum can rot.
• That’s why it’s more suitable to keep Anubias in semi-emergent conditions to avoid some undesirable anaerobic processes by using water circulation and water changes. Besides that, there is an opportunity to proportion mineral fertilizers and distribute them properly. The fancier of aquatic fauna will like such method too, because in this way he can still keep both, Anubias and aquatic animals, together.

Equipments
• An aquarium with low water level can be used as a greenhouse. But it’s very difficult to maintain such aquariums. Theoretically we need some type of terrarium with side doors and leak proof bottom. In contrast to the “true” terrarium, there is no need in vent holes in such greenhouses for Anubias, as it would be very problematically to reach necessary air humidity (more than 90%).
• It’s better to use luminous tube lamps with a warm white light for lighting and these lamps should be fixed on the outside of the greenhouse in order to avoid leaf scorch.
• The water level of 5-15 cm is enough for the growth of the most Anubias’ species.
• The pump is to place in water for the circulation.
• It’s better to keep Anubias in small plastic flower pots. The usage of the pots simplifies the attendance of the plants and their replantation etc. I often use the packing from foodstuff, for example plastic yoghurt cups. It’s necessary to make small holes in the side of the cup for water cycle. The upper edge of the cup should be under the water for several cm so the plants can grow emerge upon the surface.
• Common pebbles or small clay pellets can be used as a substratum. Every fancier has his own opinion concerning the question which additives (clay, ash, peat etc.) should be added to the soil. I’ve checked several variants of such mixtures and I didn’t notice any striking differences from the pure pebbles. We should follow only one rule – add the additive no more as 1/3 from total amount of the substratum, otherwise there would be asescence (rotting) of the soil or further mortality of the plant. Very often the usage of the peat, in order to soften the water and decrease its’ hardness, is unreasonably: due to the regular water changes the effect is thus null.

Fertilization
• Mineral fertilizers should be added in water for Anubias’ full nutrition. It can be done in different ways. For example you can use some fertilizers for house plants. But sometimes they aren’t well balanced, so in this way they don’t supply the needs of Anubias. And very often there is an oversupply with one element and that can lead to the plant’s disease. This problem can be solved by regular water changes. The usage of alive hydrobionts is another way to supply Anubias with necessary nutrition. It can be as snails, so as different fishes. They will consume food and excrete the waste products, which are necessary for Anubias. More than that snails are very important for aquariums, they eat obsolescent leaves or the other part of the plants. Though this method has also some disadvantages. For example, if there are any aquatic organisms, so it’s impossible to use chemical substances in order to fight with pests and diseases.

Temperature
• The temperature in greenhouse should be 22-26ºС. The direct sun should be avoided. Of course sometimes this natural lightening is useful for Anubias’ vital functions, but often it can lead to the air’s overheating. Anubias don’t like overheating (above 30 ºС) and vice versa overcooling (below 20 ºС).

[From Bulletin of Russian Anubias Forum] How to grow Anubias at home (several advices)

How to grow Anubias at home (several advices)

It’s well known that Anubias are riverside plants. But only some species can grow upwell in aquarium; for example A. afzelii, A. barteri and some specimen of A. heterophylla. Though even these species grow up better in an emergent condition: they do it quickly, the leaves become larger, and more than that such plants blossom more often and so on. In the botanic garden’s greenhouses Anubias are grown up without water, meanwhile a damp peat or soil can be used as a ground. Such method also gives good results, the Anubias’ leaves grow very quickly. So as there is not so much water the leaves become firmer and harder than in aquarium. But this method is not suitable for small home greenhouses, because it’s difficult to fit out good ventilation in such a small volume and as the result the substratum can rot. That’s why it’s more suitable to keep Anubias in the emergent conditions, in such way it’s possible to avoid some undesirable anaerobic processes due to the water circulation and water changes. Besides there is an opportunity to proportion mineralfertilizers and distribute them properly. So the fancier of the aquatic fauna will like such method too, because in this way he can keep both, Anubias and aquatic animals, together.

An aquarium with a law water level can be used as a greenhouse. But it’s very difficult to maintain such aquariums. Theoretically we need some type of terrarium with side doors and leak proof bottom. In contrast to the “true” terrarium, there is no need in vent holes in such greenhouses for Anubias, as it would be very problematically to reach necessary air humidity (more than 90%).

It’s better to use luminous tube lamps with a warm white light for lighting and these lamps should be fixed on the outside of the greenhouse in order to avoid leaf scorch. The water level 5-15 cm. is enough for the growth of the most Anubias’ species. The pump is to place in water for the circulation. It’s better to keep Anubias in small plastic flower pots. The usage of the pots simplifies the attendance of the plants and their replantation etc. I often use the packing from foodstuff, for example plastic yoghurt cups. It’s necessary to make small holes in the side of the cup for water cycle. The upper edge of the cup should be under the water and only for a little it can emerge upon the surface. Common pebbles or small clay pellets can be used as a substratum. Every fancier has his own opinion concerning the question which additives (clay, ash, peat etc.) should be added to the soil. I’ve checked several variants of such mixtures and I didn’t notice any striking differences from the pure pebbles. We should follow only one rule – add the additive no more as 1/3 from total amount of the substratum, otherwise there would be asescence (rotting) of the soil or further mortality of the plant. Very often the usage of the peat, in order to soften the water and decrease its’ hardness, is unreasonably: due to the regular water changes the effect is thus null. Mineral fertilizers should be added in water for Anubias’ full nutrition. It can be done in different ways. For example you can use some fertilizers for house plants. But sometimes they aren’t well balanced, so in this way they don’t supply the needs of Anubias. And very often there is an oversupply with one element and that can lead to the plant’s disease. This problem can be solved by regular water changes. The usage of alive hydrobionts is another way to supply Anubias with necessary nutrition. It can be as snails, so as different fishes. They will consume food and excrete the waste products, which are necessary for Anubias. More than that snails are very important for aquariums, they eat obsolescent leaves or the other part of the plants. Though this method has also some disadvantages. For example, if there are any aquatic organisms, so it’s impossible to use chemical substances in order to fight with pests and diseases.

The temperature in greenhouse should be 22-26ºС. The direct sun should be avoided. Of course sometimes this natural lightening is useful for Anubias’ vital functions, but often it can lead to the air’s overheating, especially in summer. Anubias don’t like overheating (above 30 ºС) and vice versa overcooling (below 20 ºС).

That’s all. Practically there are no difficulties in growing such plants at home greenhouse. It’s not as complicated as the violet’s cultivation ( Saintpaulia ionantha ) on the window sill.

The author of this note: Dmitry Loginov.

The author used info from the next Web pages:http://www.tropica.ru/modules/ss/item

.php?itemid=138 andhttp://www.tropica.ru/forum/index.php?showtopic=20547

Translated from Russian by Julia Niklyaeva and Alexander Grigorov

Photos: Dmitry Loginov and Valentina Romanova.

© Dmitry Loginov

© Alexander Grigorov

Source: http://anubias-engl.blogspot.com/2009/12/how-to-grow-anubias-at-home-several.html

Introduction to Anubias

Anubias is a genus of aquatic and semi-aquatic flowering plants in the family Araceae, native to tropical central and western Africa. They primarily grow in rivers and streams, but can also be found in marshes. They are characterized by broad, thick, dark leaves that come in many different forms. The genus was revised in 1979[1] and since then its nomenclature has been stable. Species can be determined by using mostly characteristics of the inflorescence. Because of the often shady places where the plants grow, the genus was named after the Egyptian god Anubis, the god of the afterlife.[1] The genus was first described in 1857 by Heinrich Wilhelm Schott, with A. afzelii as its type species.[2]

Anubias are considered by many aquarists some of the easiest plants to maintain, since their light and nutrient requirements are very low and also because herbivorous fish will not eat it (with a few exceptions). This is why Anubias are some of the few plants which can be used in aquariums with African cichlids and goldfishes.

The natural growth rate of all species in this genus is rather slow. Usually, they produce a leaf every 3 weeks, or even slower. And while they were once thought to be among the few plants that do not respond to CO2 addition, hobbyists have seen great results and improved growth with CO2 and high light intensity.

Anubias can best be grown emerse (above water). For this reason they may be used in paludariums.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anubias

Welcome

Hello All!

My name is Novianto Sutardi.

I am an Anubias grower from Indonesia, and this blog is made to help those who are trying to grow their Anubias emersed.

Materials are taken from various resources, compiled in order to help new Anubias grower on their journey to cultivate this wonderful plants.

Hopefully, you can learn something from this blog.